This paper aims to offer a general outline of the development of electronic music in Iran and its intertwinement with tradition. After presenting a brief history of electronic music before and after the 1979 Revolution of Iran, I will discuss in more depth the social, political and musical context in which three generations of Iranian composers have developed their musical language. With regard to the phenomenon of multiculturalism evolved in such contexts, the role of universities, the internet, and the use of personal studios will be taken into consideration.
In my paper for EMS08 (Paris), ‘Pulse, metre, rhythm in electroacoustic music’ (Emmerson 2008), I aimed to raise questions as to whether perceptions of rhythmic working somehow distracted attention - took up valuable ‘bandwidth’ - away from a purely spectromorphological, instant by instant, perception of the sound objects in the sonic flow. In this paper I wish to focus on three of the composers I cited, all from Latin America, and all of whom used pulse and rhythm as a primary organising principle. In that paper I grouped them together too easily; here I wish to show both similarities and differences in their approaches to rhythm and to add some detail to their apparent critique of ‘European modernism’, as they saw it. All were PhD students at City University in London in the 1980s where I had the privilege to supervise their work: Alejandro Viñao (Argentina), Javier Alvarez (Mexico), Julio d’Escriván (Venezuela). I argue in fact that their work represented a ‘double critique’: both against ‘post-serial’ approaches (‘parameterisation’ of music, especially electroacoustic), but also developing a ‘strange critical distance’ from the more puritan strains of the acousmatic tradition, then relatively new in the UK.
At the EMS 2007 symposium at Leicester, I presented a paper in which I discussed the history of live EA, and what I perceived to be some of the problems facing the genre [Eigenfeldt]. In this paper, I’d like to suggest what I believe to be some possible avenues of exploration that live EA might pursue in the coming years.
Artistic creation, scientific research and technological innovation represent three different “areas” whose boundaries seemed to be well established in the western culture during the past few centuries. Nevertheless, whether because of a real interest, necessity or fashion, these fields have met again and are now associated to continue deepening the cultural changes caused mainly by our use of recently-evolved electronic technologies.
At the EMS conference in 2007 in Leicester I described the approach I had taken to making an analysis of Jonathan Harvey’s work Mortuos Plango, Vivos Voco (1980). The analysis had appeared in the book Analytical Methods of Electroacoustic Music (Clarke 2006). In particular I explained my concern about relying exclusively on the printed page in analyses of electroacoustic music: be that in the form of text, diagrams or printed sonograms etc.
1. Heritage and Actuality
Let me get into the heart of my topic by sharing an anecdote that really happened to me only some weeks ago. While reviewing concerts for some German newspapers, I got involved in a discussion with two concert-goers that culminated with the question of a shocked well-distinguished lady, “But is it possible that they play composers who are not yet dead?”
Text-Sound Composition remains after more than forty years one of the highlights of Swedish electroacoustic music. The name denotes an artistic phenomenon which arose in the open environment of the 1960s at Fylkingen in Stockholm as an expression of interests in multi-disciplinary art at the nexus of text, music and technology.
Dans cette contribution nous présentons des éléments de réflexion concernant l'écriture électroacoustique, établis en préalable à nos travaux de recherche sur la synthèse sonore en composition musicale assistée par ordinateur (Bresson, 2007).
Denis Smalley’s concept of Spectromorphology (1997) provides the listener of electroacoustic music with thorough and accessible sets of vocabulary to describe sound events, structures and spaces. Traditional means of describing Western art music are usually inadequate in this regard, since we are dealing with music that is not note-based and often lacking a representation equivalent.
Electroacoustic music has inherited a tradition of collaboration. Technological advances in telecommunications have led to the first tools which became the genesis of electronic music. Collaboration with areas that apparently have no direct relations with the traditional conception of music has been a common place for electroacoustic music. Intrinsically, this heritage is pushing composers and developers to follow this tradition of collaboration with non-musical related areas of knowledge. Moreover, everything points to the fact that this is just the beginning, and this trend will expand to unimagined levels in the coming years. This presentation proposes three critical aspects that will play an important role in the future of electroacoustic music: Online Compositional Tools, Synectic Strategies and Free Trade of Knowledge.
This paper draws considerations about a listening attitude which differs from the reduced listening approach and mentions examples of recent electroacoustic works that invite listeners to appreciate them with both an ‘abstract’ and ‘anecdotal’ set of mind. It is common knowledge among the electroacoustic music community that the ideal of reduced listening in the context of Schaefferian paradigm has often influenced the over-spread (yet not unanimous) compositional preference for sound objects that do not explicitly reveal their source nor make easily identifiable references to meanings of extra-musical nature.
This research presents some of the mix electroacoustic concert works of Venezuela at its highest expression, from the 70´s to this day, seen through the analysis of the relationship between instrumental sections and their electronic resources.
La musique électroacoustique à la fin du XXe siècle et au début du XXIe siècle, présente des indices de que le compositeur veut rompre avec la traditionnele incomunicabilité propre à la musique nouvelle. On continue à pratiquer des transgressions, mais le goût par l'éclectisme dans la musique électroacoustique a pris un chemin esthétique, tel comme d'autres manifestations post-modernes, qui cherche également la communicabilité.
This paper will address the notion of temporal convergence as one of the various levels of interaction between the acoustic instrument and the pre-recorded electronic material in mixed electro-acoustic works. The ideas developed here stem from my experience as a performer and are based on Denis Smalley’s concepts of interactive behaviour in acousmatic music as proposed in Spectromorphology: explaining sound-shapes (Smalley, 1997). A series of terminologies and classifications have emerged from the observation of different temporal convergences acting in a mixed electro-acoustic framework. Horizontal andvertical temporal convergences are presented as organizational forces in musical discourse that deserve consideration in the processes of composition and interpretation of mixed works. The systematic application of this approach in an interpretive context aims to contribute to the consolidation of a performance tradition of this repertoire. Additionally, it intends to offer new perspectives into the collaborative interactions between performers and composers. The musical examples mentioned here are available at www.iracemadeandrade.com
This text is a summary of my doctoral thesis entitled ‘Sound-Image Relation”, held in May 2004 at Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), available for consultation at the University Library and at the National Library (RJ), Brasil.
Andrés Venturino: diseñador, artista visual, creador del Proyecto Baldosas (www.baldosasnet.com.ar)
Martín Parselis: Ingeniero Electrónico y MBA. Realiza tareas de investigación principalmente en e-learning, Web 2.0, ciencias de los servicios y cuestiones relacionadas con los artefactos y el desarrollo tecnológico. Es profesor con Dedicación Especial en la Universidad Católica, y consultor y manager en emprendimientos privados. Es además autor de www.blog2.com.ar
Défis de la recherche sur les pratiques émergentes
(Desafíos de la investigación sobre las prácticas del arte emergente)
Quels sont les défis et questions que posent aux artistes et théoriciens les pratiques en art actuel ? Que deviennent les idéaux de spécialisation et de contrôle dans le cadre des créations multidisciplinaires ? Comment la théorie sur l’art documente, analyse et historicise des corpus si mouvants?
[versión original en inglés: abril 13, 2004 – revisión, en español, febrero 13, 2008]
[Sobre la obra compuesta por alcides lanza para el Ensemble NEM. La investigación para la parte electroacústica utilizó el sistema digital de computación UPIC diseñado por Xenakis]
Otras maneras de mirar los lenguajes: haciendo aXents en el CCMIX
I. La idea inicial
Antes de su conferencia en Buenos Aires, la especialista canadiense Joanne Lalonde analiza el uso de Internet con fines artísticos. El arte se ha apropiado, recurrentemente, de cada nuevo invento tecnológico. Pasó con el cine, con el video y ahora está pasando con la World Wide Web que, con su facilidad de uso y su alcance, le ha proporcionado a los artistas una plataforma ideal para producir y para circular obras.